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Multidisciplinary conferences (MCs) including tumor boards (TBs) holding teaching and learning opportunities for medical knowledge should be exploited as educational settings for medical students in radiology. A total of 108 MCs in radiology were analysed on interaction among students, radiologists and clinicians by non-participatory observation in 2019. Data were documented with a standardised observation sheet on criteria of teaching and learning interaction, then categorised and coded. The qualitative analysis was outlined based on two modified pedagogical principles of proactive learning, and teaching and learning processes. Results show that medical students join MCs on their own initiative. However, participation is passive. Interaction with radiologists and clinicians is limited. Although radiologists encourage students to join clinical discussions, to ask questions, and to assist in preparation of case demonstrations, students rarely seize the opportunity. The paper concludes that student interaction with radiologists and clinicians is limited regarding radiology and other medical disciplines. Students should be engaged in clinical discussions; be integrated in assisting radiologists in preparation and follow-up of case demonstrations to learn about imaging; be guided in case demonstrations to understand that clinical decisions depend on information in imaging. MCs can be exploited for teaching and proactive learning by students, radiologists and clinicians.