European Journal of Teaching and Education <p>The European Journal of Teaching and Education (EJTE) is an online open-access international journal, which publishes scholarly articles on a wide variety of topics within the field of education, including, but not limited to, education theory and practice, policy and administration, e-learning, child and family education, lifelong learning, and others. Each study published by EJTE undergoes a rigorous double-blind peer-review process.<br />The research studies published by EJTE serve the goal of facilitating and enhancing the public discussion on the topics that are essential to the future of teaching and education. The themes explored throughout the publication set the foundation of our global and national approach to education within the frameworks of academia, practices, policies, and research. As such, EJTE strives to present its readers with a rich selection of perspectives and topics by bringing together experts from a range of clinical and research disciplines, along with policymakers and private institutions in education.</p> Mokslinės Leidybos Deimantas (Diamond Scientific Publishing) en-US European Journal of Teaching and Education 2669-0667 Balanced Scorecard: A Powerful Method to Improve the Management of Educational Institutions <p>Teaching, learning and education are the main activities related with any higher education institution (HEI), be they public or private. In this context, the balanced scorecard (BSC) is a powerful method that helps the successful application of performance measurements in terms of the efficiency of the programs, processes and people of any educational institution. The key performance indicators (KPI) are crucial indicators to translate the strategy into action, improving the synergies of all the people that contribute to management success. This paper underlines the importance of the BSC model in private, governmental and non-profit organizations highlighting its implementation in a HEI. In order to clarify the main concepts of the application of the BSC method in a HEI, a hypothetical institution (IPX) is considered and a set of strategic objectives are considered in terms of financial, clients, business, learning and growth perspectives. The key parameter indicators and the action plan are defined according to the HEI vision.</p> José Miguel Costa Dias Pereira Vítor Manuel Rodrigues Viegas Copyright (c) 2022 European Journal of Teaching and Education 2021-12-20 2021-12-20 3 4 1 7 10.33422/ejte.v3i4.706 Reasons Why We Lag Behind: Qualms of Teaching English Writing in Secondary Levels of Rural Bangladesh <p>Writing is one of the noteworthy factors of four major language skills. However, teaching English writing is a difficult and troublesome task for the teachers in the village areas of Bangladesh albeit to the maximum preference was given to writing modules in rural secondary schools. The present study aimed at looking into issues that hinder the advancement and effectiveness of teaching English writing at secondary school levels in rural Bangladesh. It was also investigated if the methods, materials, environments, curricula, and class sizes were congenial to the effective learning and teaching. The researcher used a mixed method approach. Both qualitative and quantitative methodology by analyzing documents, observing and interviewing of secondary school teachers and learners from different rural schools were used to conduct the study. It was observed that learners had almost no opportunity to practice critical writing in classroom settings. Seldom were they taught the writing strategies including pre-writing, brainstorming, and branching. Most often students were reluctant to the strategy of idea generation—drafting—revising. Among many obstacles, the study reveals the followings: low salary of teachers, learners’ inertia; obscurity in foreign language policies, qualms in curricula, dearth of resources and training facilities. Results from this study found plenty of incongruity between teachers’ perception and practice in writing classes. The authenticity of this paper is not marginalized to the context of a particular institution in remote Bangladesh, but is hoped to reach further to regional institutions which are facing similar problems.</p> Md. Rahat Hossain Copyright (c) 2022 European Journal of Teaching and Education 2021-12-20 2021-12-20 3 4 8 17 10.33422/ejte.v3i4.707 Reflecting on the Nature and Causes of Errors in Second Language Learning and their Classroom Implications <p>Second/Foreign language learning is a complex process. People who learn a language other than their home language often commit errors because they learn in an unnatural way. Scholars mention that some errors originate from mother tongue interferences and this phenomenon results in inter-lingual errors. Other errors are made as a result of the unfamiliarity with the target language when learners are trying to cope with the new language, internalising some concepts. Scholars also highlight those errors can be stabilised and even fossilised. Stabilised errors are errors that can be corrected provided learners have enough exposure to the new language. Nevertheless, errors’ fossilisation impacts on the whole language process as learners never know the correct way of using it. The present paper reviews the most common errors and their causes and discusses them from a theoretical standpoint. It also analyses contextual factors that have an impact on errors. Next, the paper emphasises the role of teachers in boosting effective language use among second language learners. Finally, it offers recommendations on how second language errors can be dealt with to promote learning.</p> Evariste Manirakiza Gloriose Mugirase Innocent Hakizimana Copyright (c) 2022 European Journal of Teaching and Education 2021-12-20 2021-12-20 3 4 18 28 10.33422/ejte.v3i4.549 The Impact of Flexible Assessment on Students’ Engagement and Learning During COVID-19 Pandemic <p>The work presented in this paper is related to the use of the flexible assessment to promote collaborative learning that impact students’ engagement and learning, especially during COVID-19 pandemic. This paper presents the analysis and results obtained by applying the flexible assessment in a large second-year undergraduate computer science module. Flexibility in assessment is usually achieved by giving students choice over the assessment components, contents, type, weight, timing, or the overall assessment grade. This study, however, demonstrates the development of a flexible assessment where students were given the choice to invest in a flexible assignment task designed to encourage collaborative learning and the development of higher-order thinking skills. The flexible assessment used in this study has proven that effective learning can occur when students work collaboratively. The data used for the analysis are those collected from a questionnaire distributed to students by the end of the academic term in addition to gathering students’ written feedback comments about their experience of the new flexible assessment. The questionnaire results and students’ feedback related to their learning experience are recorded and examined. Students’ performance of the targeted module has been recorded, interpreted, and contrasted with similar assessment of another module that has no flexibility in its requirements. In accordance with the students’ performance, questionnaire and feedback analysis results, flexible assessment is considered a unique assessment, beneficial and useful for students’ learning and engagement.</p> Sahar Al-Sudani Copyright (c) 2022 European Journal of Teaching and Education 2021-12-20 2021-12-20 3 4 29 41 10.33422/ejte.v3i4.545 A 2021 Online Workshop for the Review of Two Modules on Methodology for Using English as a Medium of Instruction in Rwanda: Opportunities and Challenges <p>Since the outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic in Wuhan in China and its rapid spread around the globe, people’s life and work styles have changed. Governments have installed and implemented lockdowns, social distancing, and stay home preventive measures that have forced most people to work from their homes. Research units and higher learning institutions were not spared as well. International conferences that were to take place in 2020 were turned into virtual presentations and until recently nothing has changed. To handle the crisis, the University of Rwanda also thought of transforming its work ethos. In this regard a two-phase online workshop was held in January and February 2021 to review two modules produced during a face-to face workshop in October 2021. These were modules on methodologies to help pre-primary, primary and lower secondary school teachers to effectively deliver their subject content through English, the medium of instruction, and promote learners’ proficiency in this language. As this online review was the first virtual workshop experience of the kind for most participants, the researchers decided to investigate the opportunities it offered them and the challenges faced. Theories on online work and of quantitative and qualitative research paradigms were used. The research tools were a questionnaire and observations. Graphs were utilised and emerging themes grouped into typologies for data presentation and analysis. The research findings revealed a number of opportunities and challenges. The findings also showed the respondents’ potential solutions to these challenges. The proposed resolutions were supplemented by the researchers’ recommendations.</p> Gloriose Mugirase Speciose N Ndimurugero Copyright (c) 2022 European Journal of Teaching and Education 2021-12-20 2021-12-20 3 4 42 56 10.33422/ejte.v3i4.554