International Journal of Applied Research in Management and Economics <p>The International Journal of Applied Research in Management and Economics is a platform for scientific discussion and knowledge sharing open for all researchers worldwide. The abbreviation for the Journal is IJARME. It provides a forum for both academics and decision-makers to advance theory and application in the fields of Management and Economics. All submitted articles should report original, previously unpublished research results, experimental or theoretical, and will be peer-reviewed. Articles submitted to the journal should meet these criteria and must not be under consideration for publication elsewhere. Manuscripts should follow the style of the journal and are subject to both review and editing.</p> Mokslinės Leidybos Deimantas (Diamond Scientific Publication) en-US International Journal of Applied Research in Management and Economics 2538-8053 The Effect of the Changing Diversity Climate After Covid-19 on Employees’ Behaviour in Omani Companies <p>Diversity Climate refers to employees' perceptions of the organization's diversity policies, and practices. The economic downturn in Oman has impacted the diversity climate in the workplace, and it is constantly changing as a result of the pandemic across industries, causing havoc on the workforce, especially the 1.75 million expatriate workforces across industries. This study has been conducted with the three key objectives: 1. To investigate the employees' perception on Diversity Climate of the organizations. 2. To compare the perception of citizens and expatriate employees on Diversity Climate and 3. To find the changes in diversity practices of organizations in Oman after Covid- 19. The research was carried out in Muscat, and data obtained from 117 workers (both citizens and expatriates) who work in different companies at various levels/ positions. with the aim of getting a deeper understanding of how the diversity climate has changed since Covid-19 from the employees' perspective. Finally, the researchers suggested some solutions and discussed the study's novelty as well as the potential scope for future research.</p> Syed Sadullah Hussainy Copyright (c) 2021 2021-12-20 2021-12-20 4 2 1 12 10.33422/ijarme.v4i2.628 Measuring Digital and Traditional Financial Inclusion in Egypt: A New Index <p>Digital finance has witnessed rapid development in the last few years that might threaten the way traditional financial services are being used. It creates new opportunities for small businesses and low – income groups that have no or limited access to formal financial services. Therefore, digital financial inclusion plays an important role in enhancing a country`s financial inclusion, meeting some sustainable development goals and achieving higher economic growth. Although few studies took the attempt to measure the inclusiveness of the financial system in Egypt, however, no study did quantify the financial inclusion for Egypt. This paper aims to fill in this gap by contributing to the literature in two ways; first, by introducing a novel comprehensive financial inclusion index for the first time using a three – stage principle component analysis (PCA). Second, we build two separate indices; traditional and digital financial inclusion indices through combining access, usage, and barriers indicators for traditional financial index while for digital financial index we combined access and usage indicators. Findings revealed that both “traditional financial index” and “digital financial index” are equally important in explaining the overall financial inclusion of Egypt and thus, digital finance is seen as a complement rather than a substitute to the traditional financial services. Moreover; our results also revealed that although Egypt has low level of digital financial inclusion (0.31), digital finance is playing a significant and positive role in achieving greater financial inclusion as evidenced by improving the overall index from low (0.41) to relatively high inclusion level (0.52).</p> Doaa Mohamed Ismael Samar Salah Ali Copyright (c) 2021 2021-12-20 2021-12-20 4 2 13 34 10.33422/ijarme.v4i2.629 Talent Retention through Employee Engagement, Human Resource, Knowledge and Change Management: A Conceptual Framework <p>This study examines talent retention in the Information and Communication Technology (ICT) sector by focusing on the relationships between human resource management (HRM), knowledge management (KM), change management (CM) and employee engagement. In this respect, a conceptual framework is proposed to understand the relationships between these constructs. The proposed framework highlights the importance of implementing specific talent retention practices in knowledge-intensive sectors like ICT, in order for employees to be engaged both with their work and their organization.</p> Dorothea Kossyva Georgios Theriou Vassilis Aggelidis Lazaros Sarigiannidis Copyright (c) 2021 2021-12-20 2021-12-20 4 2 35 45 10.33422/ijarme.v4i2.631 Unlocking Temporal Leadership to Handle Project Team Performance under Team Conflict <p>It is discussed in different studies that the performance of any team is directly or indirectly dependent on the leadership of that team. But there are always some circumstances which affect the performance of a team on various points. These circumstances may include team conflict and its three sub-level conflicts which include task conflicts, relationship conflicts, and process conflicts. The proposed article will be a joint venture of Information Technology and Project Management discipline in which quantitative research method is used. Given the relationship between team temporal leadership and project team performance, it is obligatory for a leader of the technical team to be well aware of managing the conflicts that arise among a team and also be well aware of resources provided by higher-ups. The research will highlight 1) the negative effect of team conflict on the performance of a team, 2) the influence of temporal leadership on team performance and 3) the role of temporal leadership to overcome negative impact of conflicts to improve project team performance.</p> Muhammad Bilal Afzal Kayani Copyright (c) 2021 2021-12-20 2021-12-20 4 2 46 66 10.33422/ijarme.v4i2.632 The Impact of External Communication Strategy on Blockchain Startups: Analysing the Case of Credits Blockchain Platform <p>Communication is always an important part of establishing a business’ sense of direction and growth; information needs to be accessed by the receiver in an appropriate way and put across in a clear, impactful and engaging way so that it will have an effect on the user. This research paper gives a detailed review of external communication strategies in the blockchain industry and how startups could revise their strategies over time to build trust and reputation. Even if the blockchain industry is becoming the preferred choice for businesses to securely conduct transactions, not many blockchain projects find acceptance amongst investors. Blockchain projects focus on raising funds for their ventures at a stage where they seldom have a viable product and using unregulated means of fundraising like initial coin offerings (ICO) or initial exchange offerings (IEO) have in turn been used to accumulate capital for such projects. With trust depleting in these means of fundraising, blockchain are becoming increasingly aware of the need to tailor their communication with potential investors. In this study, we’ve conducted cross-sectional studies across two separate times, once in 2017-18 at the time ICOs found prominence and then later in 2021, exploring how external communication strategies were revised and improved upon over time to ensure success and favour amongst users and investors.</p> Sadia Bruce Copyright (c) 2022 International Journal of Applied Research in Management and Economics 2021-12-20 2021-12-20 4 2 67 77 10.33422/ijarme.v4i2.673