Main Article Content


This review paper highlights the gaps and problems on source separation of human excreta; implementing and adopting human urine as nutrients for agriculture. The objective of the paper is to appraise the historical context behind the promotion of Urine Diversion Dry Toilet/Eco-san toilet and its relevance in rural Nepalese context. Moreover, it highlights the experiences regarding agricultural perspectives and livelihood by applying human urine as a fertilizer. Furthermore, it helps to understand and analyze the major issues, gaps and problems in acceptance and use of human excreta in Nepalese context for scaling up of its application and its transformation through school education system. Database search based on ‘Free text term’ or key word search was the strategy used to map of all relevant articles from multiple databases; Medline (1987-2018), MeSH (2005-2018), CINAHL (1998-2018) and OvidMedline (1992-2019). For each the outputs were downloaded into RefWorks databases. Specifically, this paper focuses on urine diversion to demonstrate its potential to elegantly separate and collect as nutrients and desire to control pathogens and micro-pollutants help in sanitation. It is recommended that an urgent need to participate community people and school children to disseminate users’ perceptions, attitudes and behaviour concerning the urine diversion toilets.


Eco-San Toilet Nutrients School Education Transformation

Article Details

How to Cite
Devkota, G. P. ., Pandey , M. K. ., & Maharjan, S. K. (2020). Urine Diversion Dry Toilet: A Narrative Review on Gaps and Problems and its Transformation. European Journal of Behavioral Sciences, 2(3), 10–19.